Arts & Humanities
Multidisciplinary approaches to explore and understand connections (or lack of them) between ecology and urban planning, waste management, creative recycling methods, flora and fauna and environment relationships
Olfactory, gastronomy and medicine histories
Critical translations of primary textual sources
Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences
A. Economic Stability, Growth and Development
Fiscal, monetary and price stability.
Investment, savings and economic growth.
Export competitiveness and balance of payment fragility as a constraint to stability and growth.
Employment, skills development and labor market imperfections and interventions
Interplay between population growth and economic development
B. Agricultural Productivity and Food Security
C. Water Management and Sustainability
Investing in new water storage and distribution infrastructure;
Repairing and upgrading the irrigation infrastructure to reduce losses in irrigation water and contamination of drinking water;
Improving the quality of water through well integrated drainage systems and large-scale, low cost, and scalable waste water treatment systems;
Enhancing financing for water sector through rationalizing of water rates and water charges;
Reducing excessive mining of groundwater through better regulation and pricing mechanisms; and through Innovative socio-technical approaches to water conservation.
Research should help find the most efficient modes and phasing of water sector reforms and investments.
D. Sustainable Energy
Battery and storage technologies
Efficient and smart grids focusing on grand challenges such as low cost electric mobility solutions
Sustainable platforms for urban, rural, and intercity mobility
Smart and sustainable energy solutions for urban, rural, and remote areas
Innovation mechanisms for reduction in transmission and grid losses in legacy infrastructures
E. Sociology and Philosophy
1. Identity politics
Thorough research into the factors leading to the perpetuation of Pakistan’s identity crisis and in defining the pathways to robust nation building is a critical need of our times.
2. Gender (disparity)
Serious research is needed to highlight the factors responsible for, and the social and economic cost of, the prevailing gender gap and discrimination, and to identify pathways for better gender equality in the country.
Research is needed on both the micro and macro causes and effects of high population growth and on better management of population programs and population.
F. Urban Planning
Sustainable urban design
Mobility, and transport
Planning for and preservation of urban space and life
Economic, sociological, and cultural triggers for the planning and creation of second tier (and new) cities and towns
Provision of quality of urban life such as issues related to transportation and congestion, waste collection and disposal, water and sanitation, healthcare and education, and law and order.
G. Climate Change and Environment
Climate mitigation, adaptation and disaster management
Metro-scale pollution reduction technologies and solution (such as Lahore smog or Karachi’s waste)
Enhancement of the capacity to carry out climate modelling and evidence based policy and planning; addressing and mitigation of large climate change impacts on marginal communities; climate and disaster surveillance and management systems, etc.
H. Information Technology and Telecom
Artificial Intelligence, Cybersecurity, Cloud Computing and Big Data
Development and use of education and health-related information and communication technologies such as exploitation of economic and technological impacts of mobile broadband and 3G/4G networks particularly for less literate and largely illiterate populations
Addressing the disparities in access of technology; development, deployment, and exploitation of 5G networks; 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) within the Pakistani context
Scalable models of education and healthcare delivery through the use of ICT.
I. Innovative Governance and Reforms
Participatory government and its effectiveness
Redefining the role of government
Civil service reforms
Incentive structures accountability and government responsiveness
Effective use of open data (OD) in evidence-based policy making
Transparency and use of Right to Information (RTI), citizen scorecards, or similar mechanisms for holding the government to account; mechanisms for creating local capacity to provide policy advice in areas of critical national importance.
- Crime Prevention, Detection, Pre-emption of Crime,
Evolution of Police Functions
Democratic Governance of Law Enforcement
- Cloud computing & paperless offices for police
- Cyber Space challenges
- Remote applications for smart policing
- Cyber Crimes fighting , Intelligence/information collection and sharing
- Computational Criminology
11. Statistics & data Management
- Crime data collation in Police departments
- Statistical models
- Crime mapping
- Data usages for evidence based policing
- Investigation, Prosecution, Probation, Prisoners and Prisons, Criminology,
Crime Syndicates, Gender related Crimes, Harassment at work place, Drug Related Crimes, Smuggling and Human Trafficking, Money Laundering,
- Transport & smart Traffic management
- Behavioral Sciences applications in the said fields
Pre-Cognitive crime fighting
16. Criminal Justice System of Pakistan Reforms
- Human Rights,
- Restoration & Retribution
17. International & UN law
- Regional and International Treaties and implementation status In Criminal Justice of Pakistan
18. Organisational Management
- Human Resource Management,
Project Management, Police Management
Public Administration of Police
A. Crop Production
Bridging yield gap of major crops by identifying predominant constraints for sizable yield gaps and proposing suitable measures to bridge the gaps. Listing of high yields by progressive farmers and average yields by small farmers for the same zone, and identifying main causes for low yields (like availability of credit, certified seed, fertilizer, pesticide), lack of knowledge about appropriate production technology, marketing problems, etc. Quantifying the contribution of each major constraint on yield reduction and propose measures to reduce the yield gap
Improving crop varieties: Variety development for high yield, better quality (stress tolerance, diversification, pest- & disease-resistance, climate resilience and nutritional quality) by conventional and novel technologies such as biotechnology and genetic engineering
Hybrid seed development of vegetables, oilseeds and fodders. Also, training of concerned scientists in hybrid seed production technology
Integrated pest management (IPM) of emerging and invasive outbreaks of insect pests and diseases of agronomic and horticultural crops such as locust, armyworms, fruit flies, whiteflies and leafhoppers on crops and vegetables; leaf curl virus and pink bollworm on cotton; aphids and rusts on wheat; and plant hoppers and blast on rice
Floriculture (export prospects): Hybrid flower development, enhancement of flower setting period and shelf life, efficient processing, and quality packing for international market development
Farm machinery development for crop sowing, intercultural practices, residue management, harvesting and grain drying for small farmers. Reverse engineering of imported small implements, development of their models for the hiring centers at village level, and improved designing of the existing farm implements
B. Soil Health, Produce Quality and Precision Agriculture
Soil health: Improving soil health by, but not limited to, zero/minimum tillage, crop residue recycling, mulching, soil conservation, legume intercropping, and efficient and integrated nutrient management including micronutrients and biofertilizers. Also, quality farm yard manure and compost production from major urban livestock clusters as in Karachi.
Soil Tillage Management
Zero/Minimum Tillage/ Conservation Tillage/ Raised Bed Technology
Improving Soil Organic Matter:
Crop Residue Recycling, Mulching, Green Manuring, legume intercropping
Efficient and Integrated Nutrient Management including micronutrients and biofertilizers.
Manure/ Compost Production
Crop Produce Quality: Improving nutritional quality of crop produce by adopting, but not limited to, site-specific balanced nutrient management and biofortification (genetic and agronomic).
Value-added agriculture for rural industrialization: R&D in dehydration, processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables; nutraceutical oils; herbal extracts; packing, freezing and pickling of vegetables.
Mushroom culture, improved beekeeping and organic farming (for the health conscious clientele).
C. Water Productivity and Climate Change
Improve water productivity and sustainability: River basin management (IWRM approach) for groundwater management (for quantity & quality); improving water productivity; climate smart water management; and appropriate crop zoning, cropping patterns, ecosystem improvement, water governance (demand based irrigation, appropriate water pricing, pancho irrigation etc.)
Utilizing non-conventional water resources and improving irrigation water delivery systems: Utilizing wastewater, drainage effluents, saline water, rainwater, hill torrents, etc. Coastal areas and wetlands management.
Climate smart agriculture: Adapting agriculture production to climate change by developing climate resilient crop varieties with regard to heat, drought and flooding (especially of wheat and cotton). Model climate scenario till 2050, propose revised crop zones due to climate change and identify areas that may become unfit for specific crops; and review water availability situation because of climate change.
D. Animal Health and Production
1. Animal Production: The emphasis is productivity improvement per unit animal of milk, meat and eggs
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Developing breeding models for dairy, beef and small ruminants for different livestock farming systems
Indigenous breeds improvement
Improvement in genetic potential of fishes
2. Capturing international markets
Animal Management Strategies
Business models for calf raising
Smart livestock and poultry farming by devising smart housing, nutritional and management plans
Productivity improvement in aquaculture
Minerals’ role in buffalo reproduction
Improved management strategies for enhancing reproductive efficiency
Fine-tuning feeding strategies
Nutritional interventions (including local soybean production) for reducing cost of production
Developing improved methods of silage, hay and feed production at farm level
Biofortification using animals
Non-traditional animal farming with value chain studies
Marketing of Livestock and Livestock products
Internationally accepted sanitary and phytosanitary measures
Economic analysis of HILAL meat to capture international markets
Effect of uncapping of meat and milk pricing on their productivity
Food (of animal origin) and feed safety
Value chain studies for increasing export
3. Animal Health
Veterinary vaccines: Improving field efficacy of existing veterinary vaccines and new veterinary vaccines
Development of field (animal-side / penside) diagnostic tests
Epidemiology of newly emerging diseases
Fish diseases in aquaculture
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
One health research
Biological & Health Sciences
A. Public Health Surveillance and Epidemiology
Investigating cellular and molecular basis of immunity to common infections and outbreaks such as SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on possible interactions with infectious agents endemic to Pakistan
Utilizing genomic epidemiology to investigate spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Pakistan.
COVID-19 and Infectious diseases (biosafety, biosecurity, active surveillance)
TB, AIDS, Dengue & Malaria (Community engagement & mobilization; resistance strengthening; environmental strategies for vector control)
Monitoring and management of drug resistance in infectious diseases
Promotion of probiotics for health and prevention
Profiling of microbiome in healthy and diseased population
Studies on Microbiome and its relation to disease; both in humans and plants
Metagenomic approaches to elucidate plant microbial interactions.
What is the gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of the rural and urban population of Pakistan and association with metabolomics?
Relationship of gut microbiota composition health, immune system and disease
B. Immunology, Diagnostics & Vaccine Technology
Development of Diagnostics for common infectious diseases and risk factors (research questions surrounding low cost and affordability)
Vaccines (collaborative research aiming technology transfer and indigenization)
Development of molecular diagnostic assays for screening of common genetic disorders in Pakistan as a risk reduction strategy (e.g. could include inherited neurological or metabolic disorders)
Establishment and scale-up of recombinant vector for expression systems for different target antigens such as, adenovirus vectors, lipid delivery systems.
Establishment of immunological protocol for the testing of vaccine efficacy – development of assays to measure adaptive immunity.
Enzymes for the industry. All kinds of enzymes in textile, detergent and food industry are imported at huge cost. These are all genetically modified. Expertise in the country exists to do all this and be competitive.
Molecular Biology biochemicals especially used in PCR, Taq-polymerase, Reverse Transcriptase, Restriction Enzymes can be prepared locally to save the imported costs.
Surveys and monitoring for emerging zoonotic diseases
Intelligent and point of care diagnostics based on CRISPR-Cas and other emerging technologies
Stem cells and regenerative medicine
Health Information Technology research to identify medical errors at healthcare units and improve the healthcare by looking at retrospective records of patients. It can also identify disparities in the healthcare system such as lack of access and its outcome
C. Non-Communicable Diseases, Population Health and Genomics
Obesity (lifestyle and nutrition) and its consequences (NASH, DM, HTN, Dyslipidemia, OSA, mechanical problems)
Diabetes (developing operational pilots for holistic and integrated, primary care models)
Cardiovascular diseases (research questions surrounding low cost and affordability)
Public mental health problems (research questions surrounding its demystification, and trickle down to lower tiers, i.e., primary care setting)
Use of population genomics to recommend drugs better suited for our population
Cancer genomics to avoid unnecessary treatment and better treatment options
Prevention of genetic diseases by developing a SNP chip based on common mutations associated with genetic disorders in Pakistan
Studies on genetic disorders, developing early diagnostic approaches for diseases such as Autism and Alzheimer
Studies on Leukemia and beta Thalassemia; mapping of mutations and development of pre-natal diagnosis
Understanding biochemical mechanism of tumor suppressor proteins and to use them for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes
Tobacco consumption (health consequences; decreasing uptake and increasing cessation with special focus on reducing inequalities in tobacco related harm)
Air Pollution (strategies for minimizing air pollution and its impact on health)
Impact of injury on health and productivity (RTA/accidents, industrial injury, violence, poisoning & chemical exposure, bite & stings and burns)
D. Food security, nutrition and human capital
Food security research, its measurement and consequences on human health and capital
Undernutrition (stunting, wasting), risk factors, consequences and potential solutions for Pakistan
Micronutrient deficiencies, risk factors, consequences & potential solutions for Pakistan
Cost effectiveness research to address the double burden of malnutrition and nutrition transition (overweight and obesity)
Implementation research to address nutrition problems in Pakistan
Research to address gender dimensions of malnutrition
Impact of undernutrition on early child development and potential undernutrition
Addressing nutrition problems across the life course
Impact of climate change on health and nutrition and measurement
Employment of different technologies to provide clean drinking water.
Use of genome editing and gene drive for control of insects pests of crop and disease vectors for human and animal diseases
Vaccines for livestock and poultry**
Development of nutraceutical production from medicinal plants
Studies on Plant-Microbiome and its relation to plant health and disease
Biofortification for enhancing the nutritive value of edible crops**
Use of genomics and sexed semen for enhancing the quality and quantity of milk and meat production
Use of genome editing, genomic selection and speed breeding for fast-track development of elite germplasm in major crops such as rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, potato, oilseed mustard, sorghum, millet
Promotion of biofertilizers and use of fertilizer use efficient crops to decrease the use chemical fertilizers by half
Decrease in use of chemical pesticides by promotion of biopesticides to save water bodies and groundwater from contamination and promote export of healthy food crops
E. Climate change, environmental stress and health
F. Bio‐informatics & Big‐data Analytics
G. Drug Abuse
Influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse
Drug abuse prevention starts with parents
How can prescription drugs misuse be prevented?
Principles of school drug education
Engineering & Technology:
A. Food Security
Smart Agriculture Tools
Smart and sustainable food production and processing
Cyber Physical Systems for Agriculture
B. Water Management and Sustainability
Development of Water management equipment/tools/ techniques
Recycling of waste water
Devices of efficient management of water
Data Science for water management
Methods of water storage
Water Quality Monitoring and Control Systems
C. Sustainable Energy
Devices/equipment for renewable energy system development
Low cost methods for clean energy
Methods for line loss reductions
Solar and wind power plants
Biomass/biofuels development from waste
Solar Thermal Systems for Comfort Conditioning
D. Development Economics
Innovation of products for local and foreign market
Reverse supply chains
Pandemic / disaster resilient economic models and solutions
Efficient Industrial Systems Design Technologies
Techniques for Enhancing Product
Efficient Inventory Control Strategies
Smart Quality Monitoring Systems
Supply Chain Management
Energy Efficient Systems
Smart Systems for Market Analysis/Forecasting
E. Urban Planning
Environment monitoring system
Environment monitoring system for efficient observation and feedback for sustainable communities
Remote Traffic Management and Control Systems
Solid Waste Management and Recycling Technologies
F. Climate Change and Environment
Smart devices for environment monitoring
Smart systems for climate monitoring
Smart devices for geological studies including but not limited to monitor climate/ weather/ earthquakes/ floods
Smart devices for monitoring climate changes e.g. Ozone layer/ weather/ floods
G. Information Technology & telecommunications
Cyber physical systems
E-commerce and e-governance applications
Tele/Online Education Systems
Smart and efficient health systems
Biomedical devices and equipment
Innovative biotechnological solutions for physical well-being
Neuroscience and its application in rehabilitation
Biotechnological waste-water treatment
Efficient medical diagnostics
Smart Patient Monitoring Systems
I. Technological solutions in agriculture and livestock:
Smart solutions in agriculture and live stocks
Targeted research in solving the local problems in agriculture
Improved equipment, tools, techniques and smart methods for improving agriculture
J. Entrepreneurial/Job-creation activities
Solution leading to job creation
Enhancing employment opportunities for youth
K. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Technologies & Systems
Advanced composites and materials with applications in the medical devices, automotive, aerospace, electricals, electronics, industrial and power sectors etc.
L. Advanced Technologies
Emerging advanced technologies for solving the local problems to create societal/ socio-economic impact.
Some examples include but not limited to:
Nanotechnology / Nanosensors
Optoelectronic based industrial solutions
Energy Storage Technologies
Mathematical & Physical Sciences
A. Transport and smart mobility
Development of new automobile and driving systems constituted of engines made from
New materials or alloys developed components with longer life and better fuel efficiency.
Developing of digital/computer controlled software, coupled with sensing and monitoring systems
Better and improved alternate energy providing systems like batteries with high charge/ discharge cycles, longer life, consisting of electrodes coated with cheaper and better materials to host chemical reactions for better efficiencies and better ion conducting solid electrolytes properties,
Coating of vehicles with semiconducting material to convert sun light and heat to electricity to run the vehicle for its mobility.
To produce mobile oil from local resources with better lubricating and decreasing fuel consumption.
B. Health and wellbeing
To develop copper and zinc embedded textiles to inhibit infection in the form of Masks
To stop and break the RNA and DNA structure covalent bonds of bacteria and virus
Fibers and clothing for protecting dresses with antimicrobial properties
Bed sheets to reduce infection in the hospitals
Developing two phase coupled transport membranes based ointments to heal injuries and burn at a faster rate for quick healing
Fabrication of wearable blood dialysis system based on high specific area containing materials.
Development of membranes for hemodialysis and fabrication of this system in Pakistan plus its commercialization
To develop hydrogen storing nano materials with high energy density including aluminum alloys with other metals and their oxides with low cost
Stable and viscous liquids for electric transformers and solar energy concentrators
Design and development of fuel cells of higher power e.g. greater than 0.5MWe
Membranes for fuel cells and electro dialysis systems
Energy systems based on solute or salt concentration system
Optimal control methods development to maximize energy efficiency
Metal ions separations from minerals.
New nuclear reactions with better control and safety
Oxygen enrichment in air for fuel burning reaction for efficiency improvement
Thin film solid electrolytes for optical and energy storage applications
Fuel cells based on membranes fabrication in Pakistan
Fabrication of high capacity nickel hydride batteries
Fabrication of intermediate temperature and membranes based fuel cells
Inorganic membranes and modules fabrication study for natural gas purification with respect H2S and other impurities
Energy systems using gas phase cooling systems to save huge amount of water
Design and fabrication of hydro, gas and steam turbines in Pakistan
Fuel cells study as an alternate system to classical electricity generation
Enzymatic scarification of wheat straw for enhancing bio ethanol production
D. Digital industry and digital life
Study of the economic benefits in term of profit earned in Pakistan by different companies and how to save foreign exchange transfer and its saving: methods and viable proposals and solutions
F. Smart cities and communities
To develop cheaper and new construction materials and bricks with water resistance and mitigating pollution.
Design study of self-sustained houses based on solar systems with improved efficiencies and reduced cost
To develop foldable and flexible dye sensitized solar energy harnessing systems for house windows and roofs
Self-cleaning paint development for decomposition of pollutants in air
G. Process technology, equipment, materials and manufacturing
Technology transfer option is to be part of procurement or purchase of plants and equipment.
Related field capacity building through training courses for technicians and researchers
Applied research related to plants, equipment and analytical instrument
Innovative scientist and engineers and other professionals must be appreciated and rewarded through early promotions and financial awards and support.
Visits of capable people abroad for assimilation of new research ideas and technical processes.
Synthesis of ionic liquid
Actinide and lanthanide metal extraction using various techniques for waste disposal.
Microbial/biological water filter development and fabrication for water and gaseous purification
Rapid chemical processes development with miniaturized cells for production of chemicals
Study of breaking of water and alcohol zoetrope’s using ionic liquids
Water splitting by using solar visible spectrum heat and energy for hydrogen production.
Green chemistry processes development for safe production of chemicals with simple reaction
PVC and other polymer supported nano metal particles based catalyst making for better hydrogenation reactions
Ozonation of drinking water and waste water effluents system for its optimal use to remove biological pollution
Rapid carbon dioxide conversion to produce short chains olefins, dimethyl ether and hydrocarbons
Fabrication of toxic element detection sensors for pollution control
Development of electrodes for heavy metal detection
Polymers of transition metals for metal ions separations
Development of SLM systems for metal ions extraction from low and high concentration feed solutions. Application for recovery of gold, silver. Copper and other metals from minerals
Long distance remote sensing of chemical/biological trace element
Design & Development of TW laser system.
- Table Top X –rays Generation
- Electron acceleration
- Generation of THz radiations for research and security applications.
- High Resolution Time Resolved Spectroscopy
- (Ultrafast Spectroscopy)
- Nuclear Transmutation
- Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
- Material processing
- Medical applications
- And many more applications
MEMs Based Sensor / Detector Fabrication (Device based Micro/nano-fabrication).
- Ultrafast Ferro electricity and magnetism by non-linear photonics.
- Super-resolution imaging via linear and nonlinear optics
- Ultrafast Ferro electricity and magnetism by non-linear photonics.
- Super-resolution imaging via linear and nonlinear optics
Development of cold atoms sources for quantum technology
Crystal making of alkaline metal halides and to create facilities for that
Ceramics for engines and sensors for various applications in industry
Elimination of toxic functional groups like aldehyde , cyanides nitrite and nitrates from the chemicals in polluted aqueous liquids.
Synthesis of better and cleaner catalysts to reduce waste produced per Kg product
Bi-phase- sono- electro synthesis of different chemicals in Pakistan
Ion chromatographic system coupling with mass stereoscopy for better limits of detection
Inorganic membrane systems for chemicals production, water purification sensors for detection of metal ions and their separation.
H. Climate change and pollution mitigation
Plantation of rapid early growing varieties trees and plants
Protection of available trees and through artificial intelligence system controls
Use of membrane systems for gaseous and water industrial waste.
Design and development of hybrid membranes and classical system per requirement of site and location
Processes identification and development of hospital waste treatment
Removal of arsenic and other toxic metal elements from industrial effluents, water underground aquifers.
Fabrication and Manufacturing process development of various membranes systems and modules in Pakistan through industry involvement
I. Food security
Invent and discover new varieties of wheat, rice, sugar cane, pulses and maize
Identification of new varieties using less water to reduce water consumption in agriculture.
Production of chemicals to kill pests
Improve food stock production and control of export and import
Provide land to landless tenants
Extend cultivated area to enhance the overall production of wheat, rice, and maize etc.
Develop and invent new chemical fertilizers with better efficiency and low cost of production
Reduce undernourished population by providing fortified food products
Reduce population growth rate
Improve crop management practices
J. Water management
Develop techniques to control water charge-discharge in soil
Recover fresh water from salt water tube well pumped to waste water channels and recover energy by using efficient low pressure turbines.
To solve problems with India and Afghanistan
Water treatment membrane and desalination systems development and use for getting drinking and process ultrapure water.
Recovery of water from industrial effluents, sewerage outputs for reuse for agriculture and horticulture use.
To establish a membranes based processes institute. It is to be the first one in Pakistan
K. Equity and social justice
L. Governance and corruption plus terrorism and crime Control
Good governance can be ensured with zero corruption
Include honest, innovative and capable people
No crime is possible only without the police and district management/administration support. SOP s for handling criminal people are to be made